Algebra I / Elem. Algebra
Introduction to Algebra Linear Equations and Inequalities Functions and Graphs I Lines and thier Graphs Linear Systems
Algebra II / E&I Algebra
Exponents & Polynomials Intermediate Algebra starts here!

Factoring Rational Expressions Rational Equations and Applications
Algebra III / Inter. Algebra
Radical Expressions Nonlinear Equations and Applications Functions and Graphs II Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
College Algebra
Equations and Inequalitites Functions and Graphs Polynomial and Rational Functions Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Systems and Matrices Geometry Basics Conic Sections Sequences and Series
Trigonometry
The Six Trigonometric Functions Right Triangle Trigonometry Circular Functions Graphs of Trigonometric Functions Trigonometric Identities Trigonometric Equations Oblique Triangles and the Laws Vectors Complex, Parametric, and Polar Forms
Calculus I
Limits and Continuity Derivatives Analysis of Curves Antiderivatives
Calculus II
Transcendental Functions
Geometry Physics Integration Techniques Calculus of Infinity Parametric, Polar, and Conic Curves
Calculus III
Sequences and Infinite Series Power Series Vectors and Geometry of Space Vector-Valued Functions
Calculus IV
15.Functions of Several Variables
16.Multiple Integration
17.Vector Analysis
S = contains supplemental resources
Course: Calculus II
Topic: Parametric, Polar, and Conic Curves
Subtopic: Polar Equations of Conic Sections

Overview

Start by reviewing conic sections from a pre-calculus course. See Lesson Notes - College Algebra: Introduction to Conics | Parabolas | Ellipses | Hyperbolas | General & Degenerate Conics but ignore any "text notes". Work conics that are centered at the origin as well as those translated away from the origin.

Our main goal in this lesson is to concentrate performing calculus on the conic sections. Many calculus operations are simplified by converting the equations of the conics from rectangular form to polar form. This transformation is accomplished through an ingenious formula. We can then apply calculus to the polar form to find the area inside a bounded conic, the arc length of the conic, etc. Study conics that have horizontal or vertical axes as well as those that have a rotated axis.

Objectives

By the end of this topic you should know and be prepared to be tested on:

• 10.4.1 Understand the rectangular equations and graphs of conic sections including those with centers translated away from the origin
• 10.4.2 Use the formula r = (e·d)/(1±cosθ) or r = (e·d)/(1±sinθ) to convert equations of conics from rectangular to polar form
• 10.4.3 Identify a conic from its polar form
• 10.4.4 Understand the eccentricity of the conic sections and identify a conic given its eccentricity
• 10.4.5 Graph a polar equation of a conic manually and electronically
• 10.4.6 Find the polar equation of a conic given its graph or information about its graph
• 10.4.7 Understand some applications of conics in polar form including Kepler's Laws

Terminology

Define: focal point, major and minor axes, directrix, pole, eccentricity, Kepler and his laws

Supplemental Resources (recommended)

Clark Math Dept's Conic Sections Formula Sheet reviews the standard and general conic section formulae from a precalculus course.

Explore the connection between eccentricity and conics via the java applet at www.mathwords.com/multimedia/Conics%20defined%20by%20eccentricity.htm

Supplemental Resources (optional)

These are both quite good reads. The first reviews concepts from Pre-Calculus and the second covers Calculus concepts.